Volume 15, Issue 4, 2020

1.Factors that Influence the Malaysian Industry Managers' Intention to Fulfil Environmental Corporate Social Responsibility (ECSR) Obligations in Reducing Land and Water Pollution with Toxic and Hazardous Waste

- Ramli Idris & Ian Mackechnie

Industrialisation has brought many benefits and many problems, one of the problems being disposing of hazardous and toxic waste safely. At one time it was simply dumped where convenient for the manufacturer, and that still happens illegally. Environmental Corporate Social Responsibility (ECSR) has become a global issue. This paper looks at the problem in Malaysia, bringing out the distinction between intended behaviour and actual behaviour. It is superficially obvious that if intentions are not followed by appropriate action, the intention has no effect. Despite this being obvious, this is often a point of failure. Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour gives three variables - attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control. The author adds a fourth - certified environmental training. A questionnaire was given to 120 participants on this training. The findings were that attitude and certified environmental training were strong predictors of intention, while subjective norms and perceived behavioural control were not. There was a feeling that managers were not given adequate assistance or control. There needs to be further research to establish how far intentions are typically followed by action.


2. The EU General Data Protection Regulations (GDPR) and its Business Implications

- John Kyriazoglou

Data protection becomes more and more of an issue as it gets easier and easier to collect and disperse information. Easier technically that is. Data protection laws are made to make it more difficult legally. The EU General Data Protection Regulations from May 2018 have considerably tightened up regulations to guard against releasing information without permission. The regulations are far reaching and there are penalties for non-compliance. Storing data is essential for organisations of any size, which makes it also essential to protect it from intruders. The EU document is massive. This paper sums up important points, under headings, in less than a thousand words.


3.Intellectual Capital and its Impact on the Innovation: Empirical Study Applied to the United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA)Jordan

- Dr. Mohammed Issa Ala eddin

Innovation is vital in this day and age, and innovation comes from people and their intellects, or intellectual capital. This paper looks at three aspects of intellectual capital, human (employees), structural (organisation), and relational (customers), in relation to innovation. All three aspects are based on knowledge. Employees steadily acquire knowledge of requirements and how to achieve them, and are in a strong position to see possible innovations. Structural capital consists both of equipment and infrastructure, and the organisation needs holistic knowledge of how these work together. Relational capital is the knowledge that customers have, and access to this is crucial to foster good relationships, customer satisfaction and loyalty. Thorough knowledge in all these areas helps in deciding the direction of any innovation. This study looks at these aspects in UNRWA, but the conclusions could apply to any organisation. Briefly, the essentials are to find and retain high quality employees, to review systems and processes for the best possible effects, and to attend to the needs and concerns of external stakeholders, from immediate customers to the general public.


4. A Case Study of Project Management Success in ExxonMobil Exploration and Production Malaysia Incorporated (EMEPMI).

- Adam Voo Abdullah & Ian MacKechnie

Project management is fundamental to success. It attends to the nuts and bolts of getting things done, providing equipment, keeping people informed and coordinating actions, with an end goal of completion on time and on budget. Having good ideas, good people and good equipment will be to no avail if the project is not managed well. Good project management averts crises, or, if a crisis occurs, rapidly moves to contingency plans. This paper is a case study of project management in Exxon Mobil Exploration & Production Malaysia Incorporated, looking at cost management, time management, scope management, capital structure management and crisis management. The hypotheses postulated that all of these had a direct relationship with project management success, and that in each case, quality management had a moderating effect. This made ten hypotheses in all, and the research supported all ten. These are clear results which can be applied in other projects, other organisations and other industries.


5. Quality of Work Life of the Regular Full Time Faculty Members of the Private Autonomous Business Schools of Kolkata, India: A Study

- Indranil Bose & Soma Bose Biswas

The quality of life at work has a profound effect on performance. Many studies have looked at the variables that affect perceived work-life quality; this study has used 15 variables which include pay, practical arrangements, access to resources, opportunities, and interpersonal relationships. The sample population is from five private business schools in Kolkota, where the workload has moved beyond academic and teaching duties and the workload greatly increased. Staff turnover also increased, in some places as much as 60% per year. This study showed an overall positive view of the basic requirements, such as salary, infrastructure and career progression. There is a less favourable view of the practicalities such as sitting arrangements, printing and internet facilities, and support from management in crises. There was poor satisfaction concerning some issues, such as workload, committee work and personal growth. This information could be crucial in efforts to reduce staff turnover and improve continuity of work in the faculties.


6. The Impact of Workplace Design on Employee Productivity: A Comparative Study of University Libraries in China and Pakistan

- Ayaz Muhammad Hanif & Zohra Saleem

Much is written about improving work output through staff selection, training, incentives and general policies. Less is written about the workplace itself and its effect on productivity. This paper looks at the physical environment of the workplace, specifically, two university libraries in China and Pakistan. A sample of 15 members of staff from each library, ranging from attendants to the senior librarian, answered a questionnaire on the effect of five factors on their productivity. These five factors were noise levels, lighting, temperature, furniture provided, and the layout of that furniture. Noise (meaning absence of noise) was considered important, as would be expected in a library. The opinions in the two libraries were similar, with some gender differences – men putting more emphasis on noise levels, women more on surroundings. Different types of statistical analysis brought out different orders of preference, but all the factors were considered to have an impact on productivity. It might well be useful for any organisation to look at the physical surroundings for the workforce. Improvements there might could improve productivity.


7. The Relationship between Wages, Productivity and Employee Retention Strategy in the Retail Supermarket : A case Study of Segi Fresh Retail Supermarkets of Malaysia

- Fong Chee Leong, P.J.K. & William Chua

The loss of the job-for-life culture also means the loss of the employee-for-life. Employers need to have policies that attract and retain workers of quality to maintain productivity. This paper looks at the relationship between wages, productivity and employee retention. Suitable pay is an important factor, although a lot of research shows that high pay does not always prevent workers looking elsewhere if other work conditions are bad. Similarly, higher pay does not guarantee higher productivity. This paper looks at the mediating effect of upskilling. Improving existing skills and learning new ones, is continuously important in these days of change and upheaval. It is also a source of motivation because new skills give the immediate boost of a sense of achievement as well as increasing opportunities for the future. High productivity can also be rewarding in itself, giving a feeling of achievement and likely praise as a result. All three factors – wages, productivity and upskilling were found to have a positive effect on employee retention. Wages and productivity, as mediated by upskilling, were also found to have a positive effect.