IJPM Editorial

Volume 19, Issue 1, 2024

Leadership Styles and their Impact on Organisation Culture in China: A Case Study Using DKM Group in Shenzhen City

- KOH Kee Lee

Successful leaders are very varied in their approaches, and no universal rules seem to apply. Researchers have changed their focus, from leaders' traits, to bringing in types of followers as well, along with situations and circumstances, then to transformational leadership that inspires followers. There are similar variations in theories about what influences organisational culture. Nastase suggested 14 factors. It is agreed that culture is important as it shapes attitudes, habits, values, motivators, influence and is intertwined with leadership. Four main types of leadership are commonly identified. There is the authoritarian style, where what the boss says is final. Transactional leadership functions as a kind of transaction between leaders and followers. Authentic leaders have strong values and develop relationships of trust and willingness to pursue objectives. Transformational leaders inspire others to excel, thus boosting the organisation.


Challenges and Opportunities of Implementing Six-Sigma Methodology in Malaysia Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMES): A Case Study of SECO Technology Ltd

- Lim Chan Jin

The six-sigma approach has management tools to improve company success and increase customer satisfaction. Successful companies enhance the economy. Initiating six-sigma does require resources, time, expertise and suitable infrastructure. The ambitious target is to reduce defects to 3.4 per million at the most. There is a five-step model to follow. First is to define what is needed to fulfil obligations to satisfy customers. Second, there needs to be a way of measuring performance and bridge any gaps and find ways of improvement. Third, progress needs to be analysed, using charts and diagrams to make information easy to access and understand. Fourth, improvements have to be put in place, specifying tasks and assigning responsibilities. Fifth, the process and results should be analysed to see what has succeeded and what needs amending. This should not be focused on areas that fell. The intangible reward of praise for a job well done gives encouragement to continue the good work.


Investigating the Effects of Key Managerial Competencies on Achieving Strategic Alignment and High Team Performance

A Case Study of Oil and Gas Industry In Malaysia

- James Yii Yang Ho

In these days of constant advances, there is a continuous need for updating of skills. No longer can a set of skills be taught and then the training be considered complete. In the oil and gas industry, this is compounded by high expense, depleting resources and environmental demands that may debar new sources. This adds a need for managers to acquire generic skills such as assessing new needs, keeping track of development, evaluating progress and solving problems. As well as specialist knowledge, they need people skills, people being at the core of the business. Communication is part of this, and needs to be continuous to maintain good relationships and trust. Change management is now essential for any business, and can never be complete. There are changes in technology, regulations, the physical climate and the emotional climate of people going through change after change after change. Amidst all this, there has to be strategic alignment. Strategies have to be responsive to changing demands. All in all, it looks like chaos, so managers now have to be competent in handling chaos.

Wholistic Total Solutions Approach to Strategy Implementation of Technology by Sealing the Four Gaps

- Chen Jin & KC Chan

Forming a strategy is a vital first step in any enterprise. Implementing it requires the same effort. This paper looks at four common gaps in the process that need to be addressed - Strategy, Execution, Growth and Learning. The Strategy Gap concerns the people, who must be conscientious in carrying out the strategy, and be backed by the organisational culture. The Execution Gap covers the abilities of the people in charge of implementation. They need the specific skills and knowledge required for this strategy in this organisation. They must also have an attitude that expects steady work culminating in success. The Growth Gap is about rapid progress. This requires good communication between all stakeholders. The Learning Gap is about the gap between understanding (theory) and knowing the steps required and the conditions that are necessary to bring success (practice). This all needs to be backed by an Office of Strategy Implementation, to get the right people and processes to oversee smooth progress to completion.

Exploring the Relationship between Organisational Culture and Job Satisfaction on Intention to Leave, with organisational Commitment as a Mediating Variable with Reference to the Semiconductor Industry in Malaysia

-Logeswari Nadarajan

The culture of an organisation affects how employees feel towards their employers, which affects the level of their job satisfaction. Their feelings will be on a continuum between contentment to stay and determination to leave. This is fundamental for staff turnover. Employees who feel aligned to organisational culture are more likely to stay. This paper looks at four types of culture. In Group Culture people work together and relationships are important. This brings cohesion and high levels of commitment. Development Culture expects people and ideas to develop. Creativity is high, which can be very rewarding to those involved. In a Hierarchical Culture, structure is well-defined and expectations are consistent. This can give feelings of security about requirements. In a Rational Culture, results are the measure of success. This can bring a competitive atmosphere in which some people thrive. Organisations may have elements of more than one culture. The important thing is that employees' preferences align with the prevailing culture. When that happens, there will be job contentment, commitment to the organisation, and low staff turnover.

Impact of Omnichannel Strategy on Customer Experience and Customer Satisfaction in the Retail Sector in Malaysia

-Ikhlas Elfadil Babiker Fadl Elseed Salih

'Omni' means 'all'. Omnichannel is a good word to describe the many options researching products, comparing, buying and paying. Online retail used to be mainly a supplement to physical shops, but now there are many more options. Retailers need to have an eye on customer preferences when deciding which channels to provide. Customers typically have access to several methods of choosing, buying and paying. They can also switch quickly from one provider to another, so customer satisfaction is vital, from their first enquiry to after-sales service. Some factors have been important, such as a trusting relationship between buyer and seller, quick response to queries, and quality being as the customer expects. Adding online techniques adds the importance of ease of navigation and smooth transactions at payment time. This paper looks specifically at social media, mobile apps, email and websites, as well as purchases in store. There are inevitably teething problems with new procedures, but there are high benefits to be gained from the increase in choice.